Intermediate Ideas of Science

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3D Map of Science Ideas From the big to the small Ideas of Science - mind map Big Ideas of Science Small ideas of Science 


Forms, Conservation of energy and energy transfer   Energy can be transferred from an object to another or to the environment when a force is acting on it. However, the total amount of energy always remains the same. The two main forms of energy are potential energy and kinetic energy while the two forms of 'energy in transit' (or types of transfer process) are heat and work.
Energy and forces Objects can interact from distance or when in contact, through the fundamental interactions. When these interactions occur, energy is transferred or transformed. Depending on the acting force, we have different forms of energy.
Energy in chemical reactions Energy is required for chemical reactions to occur. When a chemical reaction is triggered, energy is transformed. All living organisms transform energy from one form to another to be able to fuel their activities.

Types of interactions There are only four forms of interactions: gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear interaction and the weak nuclear interaction. Every motion or change of states is due to one or more of these interactions. The effects of these interaction can be observed in all scales of the universe.
Forces and motion   When a force (or more) acts on an object, the object will either change its kinetic state or shape. Depending on the size and the direction of the total force the object can perform different types of motions. For objects with speeds much smaller than the speed of light, the way forces act on objects is described by Newton’s laws. For objects with speeds close to the speed of light, the way forces act on objects is described by Einstein’s General theory of relativity.

Earth and the solar system Earth is a small part of our solar system. The Sun is in the center of our solar system; planets, asteroids and comets orbit around the Sun. Some planets have moons orbiting around them. The Sun is around 110 times larger in diameter than Earth.
Earth's place in the universe, Celestial objects Our Solar system is a very small part of our Galaxy, which in turn is a very small part of the Universe. Stars, planets, asteroids and moons are not the only objects in the universe. Nebulas, black-holes, neutron stars, white and brown stars are also found in the universe.
The history of our universe Our universe was born 13.8 billion years ago. It expanded from a state of very high-density and very high-temperature. This 'expansion' is called the big bang. Since then, our universe kept on expanding.


Structure,properties and function  of elements (Periodic table) There is a finite number of elements in the universe, and they are all made up of the quarks and electrons. The number of quarks and electrons defines the behavior of each element.
Structure and properties  of matter Atoms interact through the electromagnetic force and create molecules. Molecules can include atoms of the same or different elements. Each type of molecule has its own properties which also define how it reacts with other molecules. The use and role of each type of molecules in nature is based on its properties.
Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are the processes through which atoms and/or molecules interact and are combined. There are different types of chemical reactions but they are mainly categorized depending on whether the system releases or absorbs energy.
Nuclear processes Nuclear processes can change the nucleus and consequently the structure of an atom. Nuclear process can release enormous amounts of energy.

Subatomical particles properties Subatomic particles behave differently than matter in the macrocosm. In these scales, particles exhibit both particle and wave properties (wave-particle duality). They are also subjected to the uncertainty principle, which states that their position and momentum, cannot be measured exactly simultaneously. Interactions of subatomic particles can cause the transformation of matter into energy and vice versa by emitting or absorbing specific quanta (a minimum amount) of energy.
Phenomena and applications Quantum phenomena occur due to the interactions of subatomic particles according to their quantum properties and obey the laws of quantum mechanics. Some of these phenomena are used in contemporary applications like the scanning tunneling microscope and quantum computing.

Natural selection and Darwininan theory Organisms that are best adapted to their environment survive and leave a larger number of offspring than those less adapted. Traits that allow organisms to survive are preserved through the mechanism of natural selection.
Biodiveristy All organisms evolved from a single ancestor. There is a large variability between organisms, which is a result of mutations that occur in the DNA. The best adapted organisms for a specific environment are selected through natural selection.

Structure and function of cells Cells are the basic unit of life. They can either be eukaryotic, containing organelles and a nucleus where the genetic material is stored, or prokaryotic containing the DNA, proteins and metabolites all together in the cytoplasm. Cells have metabolism and can transport substances such as proteins and lipids to the inside or the outside of the cell. Each cell can develop to have a specific function in the organism. While some cells are programmed to build and repair tissues and organs, others can have a role in the protection against diseases, among many other functions.
Growth and development of organisms
Organisms can be unicellular or multicellular. While unicellular organisms are made of only one cell, multicellular organisms are more complex and consist of several cells forming organs and organ systems. These organisms grow through the multiplication and specialization of these cells. Microorganisms are usually unicellular. Some of these are parasites and can cause diseases to other organisms.

Ecosystems Ecosystems include organisms, abiotic factors and the relationships that develop between them. Energy is transferred from one organism to another through food and matter is recycled to be used again in food chains.
Earth materials and structure All living organisms are affected by the Earth's surface, materials and natural resources. There is no life without water. Its internal structure, the movement of tectonic plates and large-scale system interactions determine life and hide natural hazards for the organisms. 
Earth's Climate The Earth's climate depends on the impact of the Sun, but is also affected by humans. These days, all living organisms experience a global climate change that has multiple consequences on organisms.


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