Intermediate Ideas of Science

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Forms, Conservation of energy and energy transfer   Energy can be transferred from an object to another or the environment when a force is acting on it. However, the total amount of energy, always remain the same. The two main forms of energy is potential energy and kinetic energy while the two forms of 'energy in transit' (or types of transfer process) is heat and work.
Energy and forces Objects can interact from a distance or when in contact, through the fundamental interactions. When these interactions occur energy is transferred or transformed. Depending on the acting force, we have different forms of energy.
Energy in chemical reactions Energy is required for chemical reactions to occur. When a chemical reaction is triggered, energy is transformed. All living organisms transform energy form one form to another in order to be able to fuel their activities.

Types of interactions There are only four forms of interactions. Gravity, electromagnetism, the strong nuclear interaction and the weak nuclear interaction. Every motion or change of states is due to one or more of these interactions. The effects of these interaction can be observed in all scales of the universe.
Forces and motion   When a force (or more) acts on an object, the object will either change its kinetic state or shape. Depending on the size and the direction of the total force the object can perform different types of motions. For objects with speed a lot small than the speed of light, the way forces act on objects is described based on Newton's laws. For objects with speeds, close to the speed of light the way forces act on objects is describe by Einstein's General theory of relativity.

Earth and the solar system Earth is a small part of our solar system. The Sun is in the center of our solar system; planets and asteroids orbit around the Sun. Some planets have moons orbiting around them. The Sun is aroun 110 times larger in diameter than the Earth.
Earth's place in the universe, Celestial objects Our Solar system is a very small part of our Galaxy, which in turn is a very small part of the Universe. Stars, planets, asteroids and moons are not the only objects in the universe. Nebulas, black-holes, neutron stars, white and brown stars are also found in the universe.
The history of our universe Our universe was born from the 'explosion' of a singular point of infinite temperature and density 13.8 billion years ago. This 'explosion' is called the big bang. Since than, our universe is expanding.

Structure,properties and function  of elements (Periodic table) There is a finite number of elements in the universe, and they are all made up of the quarks and electrons. The number of quarks and electrons defines the behavior of each element.
Structure and properties  of matter Atoms interact through the electromagnetic force and create molecules. Molecules can include atoms of the same or different elements. Each type of molecule has its own properties which also define how it reacts with other molecules. The use and role of each type of molecules in nature is based on its properties.
Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are the processes through which atoms and/or molecules interact and are combined. There are different types of chemical reactions but they are mainly categorized depending on whether the system releases or absorbs energy.
Nuclear processes Nuclear processes can change the nucleus and consequently the structure of an atom. Nuclear process can release enormous amounts of energy.

Subatomic particles properties Subatomic particles behave differently than matter in the macrocosm. In these scales, particles exhibit both particle and wave properties (wave-particle duality). They are also subjected to the uncertainty principle, which states that their position and momentum, cannot be measured exactly simultaneously. Interactions of subatomic particles can cause the transformation of matter into energy and vice versa by emitting or absorbing specific quanta (a minimum amount) of energy.
Phenomena and applications Quantum phenomena occur due to the interactions of subatomic particles according to their quantum properties and obey the laws of quantum mechanics. Some of these phenomena are used in contemporary applications like the scanning tunneling microscope and quantum computing.

Natural selection and Darwininan theory Organisms that are more adjusted to the environment survive and leave largest number of offspring than their less adjusted. Different organisms are selected by natural selection as the most adapted to the specific environment.
Biodiveristy All organisms come from a single ancestor. There is a large biodiversity in all organisms which is a result of mutations that occur in the DNA. Natural selection chooses the best adjusted organisms for the specific environment.

Structure and function of cells The cell is the basic structural and functional unit exhibiting the phenomenon of life. Cells contain organelles and core which contains the genetic material. There are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. They have metabolism and can transport substances such as proteins and lipids to the inside or the outside of the cell.
Growth and development of organisms There are unicellular and multicellular organisms. Multicellular consist of several cells forming organs and organ systems. Microorganisms are usually unicellular. Several times they cause diseases and the immune system of the organism tries to eliminate them.

Ecosystems Ecosystems include organisms, abiotic factors and the relationships that develop between them. Energy is transferred from one organism to another through food and matter is recycled so as to be used again in food chains.
Earth materials and structure All living organisms are affected by earth's surface, its materials and natural resources. There is no life without water. Its internal structure, the move of tectonic plates and large scale system interactions determine life and hide natural hazards for the organisms. 
Earth's Climate Earth's climate depends on the impact of sun but is also affected by humans. These days all living beings experience a global climate change that has multiple consequences on organisms.


PLATON is a two-year European project launched on September 2016. It aspires to provide teachers and school communities with a coherent teachers’ training framework which will update their current teaching practices. More particularly, PLATON aims to offer an open and innovative training framework to teachers of primary and secondary education which will focus on:

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  • Support the use of online educational tools;
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