Particles > Chemical reactions > Properties and principles of chemical reactions formulas and equations
When substances interact through chemical processes, new substances with different properties are formed. Chemical processes always follow the same universal principles (like the conservation of energy or charge) and can be represented using chemical formulas and equations.
Connection to Big Idea about energy: Chemical reactions involve changes in energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released are exothermic reactions, while those that take in heat energy are endothermic.
Connection to Big Idea about forces: Chemical reactions occur due to the presence of electromagnetic force between atoms, their nuclei and electrons that enables them to form or break chemical bonds.
Connection to Big Idea about the universe: Chemical reactions in the universe mostly occur on planets and other celestial objects (e.g. Moons, comets) where temperatures are significantly lower than in stars. Very high temperature (like those existing in stars) do not allow the formation of molecules through chemical reactions.
Connection to Big Idea about the cell: The chemical reactions that occur in cells demand temperatures much higher than those existing in cells. The presence of enzymes (which act as catalysts) allows cells to control the realization of reactions.
Connection to Big Idea about Earth:The Earth’s atmosphere is a secondary atmosphere produced later in Earth’s history through chemical reactions between the atmosphere, crystal rocks, surface water and oxygen produced by green plants.
Subjects related: Chemistry
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